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Reading for Test Unit 9.

A love-hate relationship

People say that there is a fine line between love and hate. Recently, however, scientists have carried out a study which discovered that biologically the two are much closer than we previously thought. Love and hate, they say, are closely linked within the brain. Scientists who were actually researching how the feeling of hate works within humans discovered that some of the same neural circuits in the brain were used during the feelings of both love and hate.

So how did they find out? Seventeen people who said they really hated one person were chosen to be tested in a laboratory experiment. Most of them chose somebody they had known, or maybe a work colleague, although one person chose a famous politician! A brain scanner was then used to find out how neural circuits in their brain behaved when they were shown pictures of those people. The results showed that the neural circuits which became active were in two parts of the brain called the putamen and the insula. These parts also become active in situations that involve romantic love.

People can do extreme things both in the name of love and hate, and the results of this experiment could explain why both emotions can result in extreme behaviour. Professor Semir Zeki, of University College, London, led the experiment. He said that hate is often considered to be bad and it is often thought that humans should learn to control it. For a biologist, however, both hate and love are of equal interest. This is because hate, like love, can be a very irrational emotion, and it can therefore make people do either extremely brave or extremely bad things.

One major difference between love and hate, however, is that large parts of the brain – those associated with judgement and reasoning – ‘switch off’ when you see someone you love, but only a small area is switched off when you see someone you hate. This means that you may want to judge the person you hate, but you are likely to be less critical and judgemental of people you love.

 

Unit 9. Love & Hate

4x2

Deadline: 05/06/2019

1. Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheet.

2. Answer the questions: 

- Do you believe in love at first sight?

- How would your best friend describe you?

- Is age an important factor in a relationship?

 

Conditionals

Reading for Test

Famous friends

Having a best friend means that you not only have someone to share good times with and help you through bad times, but you also have someone who can inspire and motivate you. Without friendship, many famous people in history may not have achieved what they did. This article examines a few famous friendships.

The American writers Ernest Hemingway and Gertrude Stein met in France in the early 1920s. They met regularly at Stein’s Paris salon, where they talked about everything from writing to art to friendship and love. Despite their age difference (she was 25 years older than him) they became great friends, although many people thought they had more of a mother-son relationship. Their friendship was one of the key influences in each person's literary development, and there is clear evidence of Stein’s style of writing in Hemingway’s own works.

Hemingway and Stein were not the only writers who enjoyed a close friendship in the 20th century. British writers CS Lewis and JRR Tolkien enjoyed a very famous friendship. They were both well known for the worlds they created in their many books: Lewis's Narnia and Tolkien's Middle Earth. They became very close friends because they both believed that writing was incredibly powerful and important. They also shared religious beliefs and met regularly and wrote letters to each other.

Americans Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were both important women in the women's rights movement in the US. Without their friendship, it may not have had the same force. In 1866, the two friends founded the American Equal Rights Association and travelled around the country giving speeches and working to promote equal rights between men and women, and especially the right for women to vote. Although they were unable to achieve this in their lifetime, after their deaths their ideas formed the basis of the 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote. Their work inspired, and continues to inspire, women’s groups around the world.

Many people think that Abraham Lincoln's friendship with Joshua Speed influenced his politics, and indeed, many say that without Speed, Lincoln would never have become the 16th president of the US. They discussed everything from love to religion and social issues. Lincoln wanted to end slavery*, and it is a sign of the strength of their friendship that that they were able to remain close despite their different attitudes (Lincoln opposed slavery, while Speed relied on slaves to work his land).

Unit 8. Lost & Found

Losing it

Deadline: 27/05/2019

1 Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheets.

2 Have you ever been lost? How did you find your location?

3 Have you ever experienced deja vu? Explain what happened.

 

Unit 7. Supply and Demand

If only ...

Deadline: 20/05/2019

1 Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheet.

2 Answer the question: What wishes did you have when you were a child?

 

Unit 6. Seen & Heard

Stuck

Deadline: 06/05/2019

1. Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheet.

2. Tom is famous for his stories. Imagine you're Tom telling the story of his wife being stuck in the bathroom. Continue the story below, using reported speech.

My wife phoned me the other day and said ...

 

Unit 6. Seen & Heard

Deadline: 30/04/2019

1. Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheet.

2.Answer the questions:

a Do you agree that photographs are works of art?

b Which of the photographs at the art exhibition do you like most?

3. Discribe a photograph that is important to you.

 

Unit 5. Law & Order

Silent mode

Deadline: 19/04/2019

1. Watch the video and do the tasks on the worksheet.

2. What does the message say? Write the message that William listens to the end of the video. Use at least thre modals of obligation: must, have to, need to.

 

 

Reading for Test Unit 4.

Friends & Strangers

Reading

A

The sign of a true friend is someone who will stand up for you when others are criticising you. They will not only defend you when others say bad things about you, but they will also avoid gossiping about you. They may not agree with everything you say and do, they may not even like everything about you, but they will not let others know this.

B

Friends must treat each other in a polite and kind way. When this doesn’t happen, or starts to get worse, other positive aspects of the friendship begin to disappear as well. Friends stop trusting each other, they become less honest with each other and they find they cannot approach each other as much as they used to. At that point, the friendship could be said to be over.

C

Does someone turn to you first to share a problem or seek help? Do you respond by listening and offering advice or help? Are you willing to make yourself available to that person at short notice, to spend time with them even though you are busy and have your own problems? If so, you can certainly call yourself that person’s friend. Many people say that the most important feature of a good friendship is that both people can go to each other at any time without fear of being told to go away.

 

D

When a friend tells you something personal, it is important for them to know that you will keep that information confidential, and not tell everyone at the first opportunity. Friends have often fallen out, and friendships ended, when one person has passed on information that was supposed to be a secret between them.

E

Part of being a good friend is about being willing to pay attention when a friend has something to say, and to show interest in what they are saying. This sometimes takes time and effort. However, it is important to realise that communication is not a one-sided thing. If one friend only approaches the other when they want to talk about themselves and doesn’t make the effort to hear what the other person has to say, then that friendship is not going to last.

F

Good friends sometimes have to tell each other what they really think, and not just what they think the other person wants to hear. The problem with telling a friend the truth is that there is the fear that person will not only reject what you are saying, but will reject you as well. The sign of a good friendship is when you can tell someone what you really think about them, without that person being offended.

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