Лінгвістичний Центр К-ПНУ

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IT'S HALLOWEEN! 

October 31 is Halloween and is now celebrated in many countries around the world, but do you know anything about the origins of this scary special day?

The origins of Halloween

If you think of Halloween, you probably think of scary carved pumpkins, all kinds of fancy dress and children asking for sweets. And if you think of a country that celebrates Halloween, you probably think of the United States first. Americans and Canadians have adopted Halloween in a big way, but Halloween traditions actually come from 16th-century Ireland, Scotland and England.

The tradition of Halloween on 31 October comes from the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain. Samhain was the Celtic New Year and they celebrated it on 1 November because that was the end of summer and harvest time (life) and the beginning of winter (death). It was also the time for ghosts to return to earth for a day. People lit a big fire, wore special clothes made of animal skin and hoped to be safe from the ghosts and the winter. In AD 609, the Catholic Church put the Christian celebration of All Saints Day on 1 November. In AD 1000, the church added All Souls Day on 2 November, and All Hallows Eve – or Halloween – moved to the night of the 31st.

Pumpkins

The Celts carved faces into vegetables like turnips, potatoes and squash (a pumpkin is a kind of squash) to scare the ghosts and other spirits and make them go away. It was sometimes called a jack-o’-lantern because of an Irish story about a man, Jack. He played a trick on the devil and then had to walk the earth for all time as a punishment. Irish people who came to live in the United States in the 1800s found pumpkins much easier to carve, and the tradition became the one we see today.   

Fancy dress

The Celts were afraid of the ghosts that came on Samhain. If they went outside after dark, they covered their faces with masks. They hoped any ghosts they met would think they were ghosts too and would leave them alone. In early America, the Native Americans and the first Europeans celebrated the end of the harvest, but not Halloween. When Irish people arrived, the harvest festival started to look more like Halloween and it became popular across the country. In the late 19th century, people tried to make Halloween less about ghosts and religion and more about celebrating the season with a party for neighbours and family. That’s why Americans today wear all kinds of Halloween costumes and not just scary things like witches and ghosts like in other countries.

Trick or treat

This is another tradition that began in Europe, this time in England. When the church introduced All Souls Day, rich people gave poor people ‘soul cakes’, a small cake made with spices and raisins. It replaced the Celtic tradition of leaving food outside houses for the ghosts. ‘Going a-souling’ was popular in England for hundreds of years until about the 1930s. The Americans kept the tradition, but today children knock on people’s doors and ask for sweets. Going trick or treating is so popular that a quarter of the sweets for the year in the United States are sold for this one day.

The rest of the world

Halloween has become the United States’ second-biggest commercial festival after Christmas. Halloween is also celebrated in other countries, but it’s not as big as in the United States, even in the countries where the traditions began. Mexico celebrates the Day of the Dead from 31 October to 2 November and some of its traditions, like giving gifts of sugar skulls, are starting to mix with Halloween. In this way, the celebration of Halloween continues to change as new traditions join the oldest of the Celtic ones.

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Wednesday, October 31, 2018 11:26:00 AM

Working in pairs and groups 

The advantages of pair work and small group work:
✅Gives learners more speaking time
✅Changes the pace of the lesson
✅Takes the spotlight off teacher and puts it onto the learners
✅Allows learners to mix with everyone in the group
✅Gives learners a sense of achievement when reaching a team goal
✅Teaches learners how to lead and be led by someone other than the teacher
✅Allows teacher to monitor, move around the class and really listen to the language learners are producing

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Tuesday, October 30, 2018 12:44:00 PM

ПІДГОТОВКА ДО СКЛАДАННЯ МІЖНАРОДНОГО ІСПИТУ З АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ МОВИ РІВНЯ В2 (Upper Intermediate) 

    

Лінгвістичний центр оголошує набір на курси з підготовки до складання міжнародного іспиту з англійської мови рівня В2 (Upper Intermediate).

  Екзамен B2 First (FCE) підтверджує володіння англійською мовою на рівні В2 (Upper Intermediate) відповідно до Загальноєвропейської рекомендації з мовної освіти.

  Сертифікат стане у нагоді викладачам при присвоєнні вчених звань (звання доцента та професора); науково-педагогічним працівникам, які мають намір забезпечувати провадження освітньої діяльності іншою, крім української, мовою; студентам та випускникам ЗВО, що планують навчатися за кордоном чи працювати в міжнародних компаніях як в Україні так і за її межами.

   ПЕРЕВАГИ B2 First:

- Oтримання міжнародного сертифікату, який не має терміну дії;

- Визнання сертифіката більш ніж 20 тисячами міжнародних організацій в понад 135 країнах світу (міжнародні компанії, вищі навчальні заклади, посольства, міністерства, державні установи);

- Сертифікат надає можливість брати участь у міжнародних грантових та інших програмах.

  ПІДГОТОВЧИЙ КУРС поділяється на 2 типа:

- підготовчий курс до здачі екзамену для тих, хто володіє англійською мовою на рівні В2 (General English) - 35 занять / 70 год.

- підготовчий курс до рівня В2 (Upper Intermediate) + підготовчий курс до здачі екзамену - 65 занять / 130 год.

  Підготовчий курс проходитиме на онлайн-платформі з викладачем з Кембриджу. Усі заняття будуть записуватися у відео форматі, тому є можливість переглянути необхідні матеріали.

 Щоб записатися на курс та отримати більш детальну інформацію звертайтеся за адресою:

м. Кам'янець-Подільський вул. І. Огієнка, 61, каб. 305.

Лінгвістичний центр КПНУ ім. І. Огієнка



 

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Friday, October 26, 2018 11:36:00 AM

Learning English in student-centered inviting environment 

Group of Elementary level

Students of Ang1. A2 group are becoming more autonomous and independent through student-centered learning. Being a facilitator of learning process, their teacher Tetiana Storchova "puts students first" focusing on their needs, abilities and interests. We wish you to improve your English sufficiently, grow intellectually and personally, have a lot of positive and happy moments while learning.

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Wednesday, October 24, 2018 11:09:00 AM

First 100 years of Success 

Dear Alma Mater, happy 100 years anniversary! Let the history of university, its long and glorious way become a stepping stone to the greatest achievements.We wish you talented and creative students, excellent and professional educators, hardworking and conscientious workers. Reach new significant heights, have a lot of amazing opportunities for self-improvement and development, be the centre of education, science and culture. We have no doubt the you will continue to build on its many successes for many decades to come.

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Monday, October 22, 2018 12:15:00 PM

Practising reading, speaking, listening and writing 

Running dictation

The group of intermediate level had an amazing possibility to get out of their seats and develop the four essential skills - reading, speaking, listening and writing. They had a great time and got a lot of fun.

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Thursday, October 11, 2018 1:57:00 PM

Awesome Colour Idioms That Will Improve Your English Fluency 

Like any language learner, you’re probably wishing you could sound more like a native speaker.Here are a few of the most popular colour idioms in US English to help you sound more like a native speaker. Learn to express yourself with a whole rainbow of rich English vocabulary!

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Wednesday, October 10, 2018 5:28:00 PM

New group of Intermediate level (B1) 

Last week, the new group of Intermediate level started to improve their English. They are so different. Everyone is special and unique in their own way. We wish you to have many opportunities to communicate by sharing ... Share what you have learn, share your ideas, share your dreams ...  and show us what you know in a variety of ways!

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Tuesday, October 9, 2018 2:26:00 PM

Group of Upper-intermediate level (B2). The learning process is already started 

This Wednesday, fisrt group of Upper-intermediate level (B2) in Linguistic centre had the first class. The teacher of this group, Kateryna Tymchuk, made  fantastic impression on her students. She prepared a lot of interesting activities and variety of group works. We wish Ang1. B2 group lots of fun and get pleasure from the learning process.

Posted by Diana Bodnarchuk Friday, October 5, 2018 12:49:00 PM